Visual Servoing Platform  version 3.6.1 under development (2024-05-21)

Example of eye-in-hand control law. We control here a real robot, the Viper S650 robot (arm with 6 degrees of freedom). The velocities resulting from visual servo are here joint velocities. Visual features are the image coordinates of 4 points. The target is made of 4 dots arranged as a 10cm by 10cm square.The device used to acquire images is a firewire camera (PointGrey Flea2)

Camera extrinsic (eMc) and intrinsic parameters are retrieved from the robot low level driver that is not public.

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* Description:
* tests the control law
* eye-in-hand control
* velocity computed in the articular frame
#include <fstream>
#include <iostream>
#include <sstream>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <visp3/core/vpConfig.h>
#if defined(VISP_HAVE_VIPER650) && defined(VISP_HAVE_DC1394) && defined(VISP_HAVE_X11)
#include <visp3/blob/vpDot2.h>
#include <visp3/core/vpHomogeneousMatrix.h>
#include <visp3/core/vpIoTools.h>
#include <visp3/core/vpPoint.h>
#include <visp3/gui/vpDisplayX.h>
#include <visp3/robot/vpRobotViper650.h>
#include <visp3/sensor/vp1394TwoGrabber.h>
#include <visp3/vision/vpPose.h>
#include <visp3/visual_features/vpFeatureBuilder.h>
#include <visp3/visual_features/vpFeaturePoint.h>
#include <visp3/vs/vpServo.h>
#include <visp3/vs/vpServoDisplay.h>
#define L 0.05 // to deal with a 10cm by 10cm square
void compute_pose(std::vector<vpPoint> &point, std::vector<vpDot2> &dot, vpCameraParameters cam,
vpPose pose;
for (size_t i = 0; i < point.size(); i++) {
double x = 0, y = 0;
vpImagePoint cog = dot[i].getCog();
y); // pixel to meter conversion
point[i].set_x(x); // projection perspective p
if (init == true) {
} else {
int main()
// Log file creation in /tmp/$USERNAME/log.dat
// This file contains by line:
// - the 6 computed joint velocities (m/s, rad/s) to achieve the task
// - the 6 mesured joint velocities (m/s, rad/s)
// - the 6 mesured joint positions (m, rad)
// - the 8 values of s - s*
std::string username;
// Get the user login name
// Create a log filename to save velocities...
std::string logdirname;
logdirname = "/tmp/" + username;
// Test if the output path exist. If no try to create it
if (vpIoTools::checkDirectory(logdirname) == false) {
try {
// Create the dirname
} catch (...) {
std::cerr << std::endl << "ERROR:" << std::endl;
std::cerr << " Cannot create " << logdirname << std::endl;
std::string logfilename;
logfilename = logdirname + "/log.dat";
// Open the log file name
std::ofstream flog(logfilename.c_str());
try {
// Load the end-effector to camera frame transformation obtained
// using a camera intrinsic model with distortion
std::cout << "Camera extrinsic parameters (eMc): \n" << eMc << std::endl;
vpServo task;
bool reset = false;
vp1394TwoGrabber g(reset);;
vpDisplayX display(I, 100, 100, "Current image");
std::vector<vpDot2> dot(4);
std::cout << "Click on the 4 dots clockwise starting from upper/left dot..." << std::endl;
for (size_t i = 0; i < dot.size(); i++) {
vpImagePoint cog = dot[i].getCog();
// Update camera parameters
robot.getCameraParameters(cam, I);
std::cout << "Camera intrinsic parameters: \n" << cam << std::endl;
// Sets the current position of the visual feature
for (size_t i = 0; i < dot.size(); i++)
vpFeatureBuilder::create(p[i], cam, dot[i]); // retrieve x,y of the vpFeaturePoint structure
// Set the position of the square target in a frame which origin is
// centered in the middle of the square
std::vector<vpPoint> point(4);
point[0].setWorldCoordinates(-L, -L, 0);
point[1].setWorldCoordinates(L, -L, 0);
point[2].setWorldCoordinates(L, L, 0);
point[3].setWorldCoordinates(-L, L, 0);
// Compute target initial pose
compute_pose(point, dot, cam, cMo, true);
std::cout << "Initial camera pose (cMo): \n" << cMo << std::endl;
// Initialise a desired pose to compute s*, the desired 2D point features
vpHomogeneousMatrix cMo_d(vpTranslationVector(0, 0, 0.5), // tz = 0.5 meter
vpRotationMatrix()); // no rotation
// Sets the desired position of the 2D visual feature
// Compute the desired position of the features from the desired pose
for (int i = 0; i < 4; i++) {
vpColVector cP, p;
point[i].changeFrame(cMo_d, cP);
point[i].projection(cP, p);
// We want to see a point on a point
for (size_t i = 0; i < dot.size(); i++)
task.addFeature(p[i], pd[i]);
// Set the proportional gain
// Define the task
// - we want an eye-in-hand control law
// - articular velocity are computed
// Set the Jacobian (expressed in the end-effector frame)
vpMatrix eJe;
// Initialise the velocity control of the robot
std::cout << "\nHit CTRL-C or click in the image to stop the loop...\n" << std::flush;
for (;;) {
// Acquire a new image from the camera
// Display this image
try {
// For each point...
for (size_t i = 0; i < dot.size(); i++) {
// Achieve the tracking of the dot in the image
// Display a green cross at the center of gravity position in the
// image
vpImagePoint cog = dot[i].getCog();
} catch (...) {
std::cout << "Error detected while tracking visual features.." << std::endl;
// During the servo, we compute the pose using LOWE method. For the
// initial pose used in the non linear minimization we use the pose
// computed at the previous iteration.
compute_pose(point, dot, cam, cMo, false);
for (size_t i = 0; i < dot.size(); i++) {
// Update the point feature from the dot location
vpFeatureBuilder::create(p[i], cam, dot[i]);
// Set the feature Z coordinate from the pose
point[i].changeFrame(cMo, cP);
// Get the jacobian of the robot
// Update this jacobian in the task structure. It will be used to
// compute the velocity skew (as an articular velocity) qdot = -lambda *
// L^+ * cVe * eJe * (s-s*)
// Compute the visual servoing skew vector
// Display the current and desired feature points in the image display
vpServoDisplay::display(task, cam, I);
// Apply the computed joint velocities to the robot
// Save velocities applied to the robot in the log file
// v[0], v[1], v[2] correspond to joint translation velocities in m/s
// v[3], v[4], v[5] correspond to joint rotation velocities in rad/s
flog << v[0] << " " << v[1] << " " << v[2] << " " << v[3] << " " << v[4] << " " << v[5] << " ";
// Get the measured joint velocities of the robot
// Save measured joint velocities of the robot in the log file:
// - qvel[0], qvel[1], qvel[2] correspond to measured joint translation
// velocities in m/s
// - qvel[3], qvel[4], qvel[5] correspond to measured joint rotation
// velocities in rad/s
flog << qvel[0] << " " << qvel[1] << " " << qvel[2] << " " << qvel[3] << " " << qvel[4] << " " << qvel[5] << " ";
// Get the measured joint positions of the robot
robot.getPosition(vpRobot::ARTICULAR_FRAME, q);
// Save measured joint positions of the robot in the log file
// - q[0], q[1], q[2] correspond to measured joint translation
// positions in m
// - q[3], q[4], q[5] correspond to measured joint rotation
// positions in rad
flog << q[0] << " " << q[1] << " " << q[2] << " " << q[3] << " " << q[4] << " " << q[5] << " ";
// Save feature error (s-s*) for the 4 feature points. For each feature
// point, we have 2 errors (along x and y axis). This error is
// expressed in meters in the camera frame
flog << (task.getError()).t() << std::endl;
vpDisplay::displayText(I, 10, 10, "Click to quit...", vpColor::red);
if (vpDisplay::getClick(I, false))
// Flush the display
// std::cout << "\t\t || s - s* || = " << ( task.getError()
// ).sumSquare() << std::endl;
std::cout << "Display task information: " << std::endl;
flog.close(); // Close the log file
} catch (const vpException &e) {
flog.close(); // Close the log file
std::cout << "Catched an exception: " << e.getMessage() << std::endl;
int main()
std::cout << "You do not have an Viper 650 robot connected to your computer..." << std::endl;
Class for firewire ieee1394 video devices using libdc1394-2.x api.
Generic class defining intrinsic camera parameters.
@ perspectiveProjWithDistortion
Perspective projection with distortion model.
Implementation of column vector and the associated operations.
Definition: vpColVector.h:163
static const vpColor red
Definition: vpColor.h:211
static const vpColor blue
Definition: vpColor.h:217
static const vpColor green
Definition: vpColor.h:214
Use the X11 console to display images on unix-like OS. Thus to enable this class X11 should be instal...
Definition: vpDisplayX.h:128
static bool getClick(const vpImage< unsigned char > &I, bool blocking=true)
static void display(const vpImage< unsigned char > &I)
static void displayCross(const vpImage< unsigned char > &I, const vpImagePoint &ip, unsigned int size, const vpColor &color, unsigned int thickness=1)
static void flush(const vpImage< unsigned char > &I)
static void displayText(const vpImage< unsigned char > &I, const vpImagePoint &ip, const std::string &s, const vpColor &color)
error that can be emitted by ViSP classes.
Definition: vpException.h:59
const char * getMessage() const
Definition: vpException.cpp:64
static void create(vpFeaturePoint &s, const vpCameraParameters &cam, const vpDot &d)
Class that defines a 2D point visual feature which is composed by two parameters that are the cartes...
void set_y(double y)
void set_x(double x)
void set_Z(double Z)
Implementation of an homogeneous matrix and operations on such kind of matrices.
Class that defines a 2D point in an image. This class is useful for image processing and stores only ...
Definition: vpImagePoint.h:82
void init(unsigned int h, unsigned int w, Type value)
Definition: vpImage.h:629
static bool checkDirectory(const std::string &dirname)
Definition: vpIoTools.cpp:834
static std::string getUserName()
Definition: vpIoTools.cpp:727
static void makeDirectory(const std::string &dirname)
Definition: vpIoTools.cpp:983
Implementation of a matrix and operations on matrices.
Definition: vpMatrix.h:146
static void convertPoint(const vpCameraParameters &cam, const double &u, const double &v, double &x, double &y)
Class used for pose computation from N points (pose from point only). Some of the algorithms implemen...
Definition: vpPose.h:78
void addPoint(const vpPoint &P)
Definition: vpPose.cpp:93
Definition: vpPose.h:99
Definition: vpPose.h:93
bool computePose(vpPoseMethodType method, vpHomogeneousMatrix &cMo, bool(*func)(const vpHomogeneousMatrix &)=nullptr)
Definition: vpPose.cpp:340
void get_eJe(vpMatrix &eJe) vp_override
void getVelocity(const vpRobot::vpControlFrameType frame, vpColVector &velocity)
void setVelocity(const vpRobot::vpControlFrameType frame, const vpColVector &vel) vp_override
Control of Irisa's Viper S650 robot named Viper650.
Definition: vpRobot.h:78
Initialize the velocity controller.
Definition: vpRobot.h:65
virtual vpRobotStateType setRobotState(const vpRobot::vpRobotStateType newState)
Definition: vpRobot.cpp:198
Implementation of a rotation matrix and operations on such kind of matrices.
static void display(const vpServo &s, const vpCameraParameters &cam, const vpImage< unsigned char > &I, vpColor currentColor=vpColor::green, vpColor desiredColor=vpColor::red, unsigned int thickness=1)
void setInteractionMatrixType(const vpServoIteractionMatrixType &interactionMatrixType, const vpServoInversionType &interactionMatrixInversion=PSEUDO_INVERSE)
Definition: vpServo.cpp:378
Definition: vpServo.h:162
void addFeature(vpBasicFeature &s_cur, vpBasicFeature &s_star, unsigned int select=vpBasicFeature::FEATURE_ALL)
Definition: vpServo.cpp:329
void set_cVe(const vpVelocityTwistMatrix &cVe_)
Definition: vpServo.h:1028
void print(const vpServo::vpServoPrintType display_level=ALL, std::ostream &os=std::cout)
Definition: vpServo.cpp:169
void setLambda(double c)
Definition: vpServo.h:976
void set_eJe(const vpMatrix &eJe_)
Definition: vpServo.h:1091
void setServo(const vpServoType &servo_type)
Definition: vpServo.cpp:132
vpColVector getError() const
Definition: vpServo.h:504
Definition: vpServo.h:229
vpColVector computeControlLaw()
Definition: vpServo.cpp:703
Definition: vpServo.h:196
Class that consider the case of a translation vector.
vpVelocityTwistMatrix get_cVe() const
Definition: vpUnicycle.h:70
Definition: vpViper650.h:120
void display(vpImage< unsigned char > &I, const std::string &title)
Display a gray-scale image.