Visual Servoing Platform  version 3.6.1 under development (2024-05-28)

Simulation of a 2D visual servoing:Simulation of a 2D visual servoing:

Interaction matrix is computed as the mean of the current and desired interaction matrix.

* ViSP, open source Visual Servoing Platform software.
* Copyright (C) 2005 - 2023 by Inria. All rights reserved.
* This software is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
* it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
* the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
* (at your option) any later version.
* See the file LICENSE.txt at the root directory of this source
* distribution for additional information about the GNU GPL.
* For using ViSP with software that can not be combined with the GNU
* GPL, please contact Inria about acquiring a ViSP Professional
* Edition License.
* See for more information.
* This software was developed at:
* Inria Rennes - Bretagne Atlantique
* Campus Universitaire de Beaulieu
* 35042 Rennes Cedex
* France
* If you have questions regarding the use of this file, please contact
* Inria at
* This file is provided AS IS with NO WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, INCLUDING THE
* Description:
* Simulation of a 2D visual servoing using 4 points with polar
* coordinates as visual feature.
#include <visp3/core/vpConfig.h>
#include <visp3/core/vpDebug.h>
#if defined(VISP_HAVE_THREADS) && (defined(VISP_HAVE_X11) || defined(VISP_HAVE_OPENCV) || defined(VISP_HAVE_GDI)) \
&& (defined(VISP_HAVE_LAPACK) || defined(VISP_HAVE_EIGEN3) || defined(VISP_HAVE_OPENCV))
// We need to use threading capabilities. Thus on Unix-like
// platforms, the libpthread third-party library need to be
// installed. On Windows, we use the native threading capabilities.
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <visp3/core/vpCameraParameters.h>
#include <visp3/core/vpHomogeneousMatrix.h>
#include <visp3/core/vpImage.h>
#include <visp3/core/vpImagePoint.h>
#include <visp3/core/vpIoTools.h>
#include <visp3/core/vpMath.h>
#include <visp3/core/vpMeterPixelConversion.h>
#include <visp3/gui/vpDisplayGDI.h>
#include <visp3/gui/vpDisplayGTK.h>
#include <visp3/gui/vpDisplayX.h>
#include <visp3/io/vpParseArgv.h>
#include <visp3/robot/vpSimulatorViper850.h>
#include <visp3/visual_features/vpFeatureBuilder.h>
#include <visp3/visual_features/vpFeaturePoint.h>
#include <visp3/vs/vpServo.h>
// List of allowed command line options
#define GETOPTARGS "cdh"
void usage(const char *name, const char *badparam);
bool getOptions(int argc, const char **argv, bool &click_allowed, bool &display);
void usage(const char *name, const char *badparam)
fprintf(stdout, "\n\
Tests a control law with the following characteristics:\n\
- eye-in-hand control\n\
- articular velocity are computed\n\
- servo on 4 points,\n\
- internal and external camera view displays.\n\
%s [-c] [-d] [-h]\n",
fprintf(stdout, "\n\
OPTIONS: Default\n\
Disable the mouse click. Useful to automate the \n\
execution of this program without human intervention.\n\
-d \n\
Turn off the display.\n\
Print the help.\n");
if (badparam)
fprintf(stdout, "\nERROR: Bad parameter [%s]\n", badparam);
bool getOptions(int argc, const char **argv, bool &click_allowed, bool &display)
const char *optarg_;
int c;
while ((c = vpParseArgv::parse(argc, argv, GETOPTARGS, &optarg_)) > 1) {
switch (c) {
case 'c':
click_allowed = false;
case 'd':
display = false;
case 'h':
usage(argv[0], nullptr);
return false;
usage(argv[0], optarg_);
return false;
if ((c == 1) || (c == -1)) {
// standalone param or error
usage(argv[0], nullptr);
std::cerr << "ERROR: " << std::endl;
std::cerr << " Bad argument " << optarg_ << std::endl << std::endl;
return false;
return true;
int main(int argc, const char **argv)
try {
bool opt_click_allowed = true;
bool opt_display = true;
// Read the command line options
if (getOptions(argc, argv, opt_click_allowed, opt_display) == false) {
// We open two displays, one for the internal camera view, the other one for
// the external view, using either X11, GTK or GDI.
#if defined(VISP_HAVE_X11)
vpDisplayX displayInt;
#elif defined(VISP_HAVE_GDI)
vpDisplayGDI displayInt;
#elif defined(HAVE_OPENCV_HIGHGUI)
vpDisplayOpenCV displayInt;
// open a display for the visualization
vpImage<unsigned char> Iint(480, 640, 255);
if (opt_display) {
displayInt.init(Iint, 700, 0, "Internal view");
vpServo task;
std::cout << std::endl;
std::cout << "----------------------------------------------" << std::endl;
std::cout << " Test program for vpServo " << std::endl;
std::cout << " Eye-in-hand task control, articular velocity are computed" << std::endl;
std::cout << " Simulation " << std::endl;
std::cout << " task : servo 4 points " << std::endl;
std::cout << "----------------------------------------------" << std::endl;
std::cout << std::endl;
// sets the initial camera location
vpHomogeneousMatrix cMo(-0.05, -0.05, 0.7, vpMath::rad(10), vpMath::rad(10), vpMath::rad(-30));
// sets the point coordinates in the object frame
vpPoint point[4];
point[0].setWorldCoordinates(-0.045, -0.045, 0);
point[3].setWorldCoordinates(-0.045, 0.045, 0);
point[2].setWorldCoordinates(0.045, 0.045, 0);
point[1].setWorldCoordinates(0.045, -0.045, 0);
// computes the point coordinates in the camera frame and its 2D
// coordinates
for (unsigned int i = 0; i < 4; i++)
// sets the desired position of the point
for (unsigned int i = 0; i < 4; i++)
vpFeatureBuilder::create(p[i], point[i]); // retrieve x,y and Z of the vpPoint structure
// sets the desired position of the feature point s*
// Desired pose
// Projection of the points
for (unsigned int i = 0; i < 4; i++)
for (unsigned int i = 0; i < 4; i++)
vpFeatureBuilder::create(pd[i], point[i]);
// define the task
// - we want an eye-in-hand control law
// - articular velocity are computed
// - we want to see a point on a point
for (unsigned int i = 0; i < 4; i++)
task.addFeature(p[i], pd[i]);
// set the gain
// Declaration of the robot
vpSimulatorViper850 robot(opt_display);
// Initialise the robot and especially the camera
// Initialise the object for the display part
// Initialise the position of the object relative to the pose of the
// robot's camera
// Set the desired position (for the display part)
// Get the internal robot's camera parameters
robot.getCameraParameters(cam, Iint);
if (opt_display) {
// Get the internal view
// Display task information
unsigned int iter = 0;
// loop
while (iter++ < 500) {
std::cout << "---------------------------------------------" << iter << std::endl;
// Get the Time at the beginning of the loop
double t = vpTime::measureTimeMs();
// Get the current pose of the camera
cMo = robot.get_cMo();
if (iter == 1) {
std::cout << "Initial robot position with respect to the object frame:\n";
// new point position
for (unsigned int i = 0; i < 4; i++) {
// retrieve x,y and Z of the vpPoint structure
vpFeatureBuilder::create(p[i], point[i]);
if (opt_display) {
// Get the internal view and display it
if (opt_display && opt_click_allowed && iter == 1) {
// suppressed for automate test
std::cout << "Click in the internal view window to continue..." << std::endl;
// compute the control law
v = task.computeControlLaw();
// send the camera velocity to the controller
std::cout << "|| s - s* || " << (task.getError()).sumSquare() << std::endl;
// The main loop has a duration of 10 ms at minimum
vpTime::wait(t, 10);
// Display task information
std::cout << "Final robot position with respect to the object frame:\n";
if (opt_display && opt_click_allowed) {
// suppressed for automate test
std::cout << "Click in the internal view window to end..." << std::endl;
catch (const vpException &e) {
std::cout << "Catch a ViSP exception: " << e << std::endl;
#elif !(defined(VISP_HAVE_X11) || defined(VISP_HAVE_GTK) || defined(VISP_HAVE_GDI))
int main()
std::cout << "You do not have X11, or GDI (Graphical Device Interface) of OpenCV functionalities to display images..."
<< std::endl;
std::cout << "Tip if you are on a unix-like system:" << std::endl;
std::cout << "- Install X11, configure again ViSP using cmake and build again this example" << std::endl;
std::cout << "Tip if you are on a windows-like system:" << std::endl;
std::cout << "- Install GDI, configure again ViSP using cmake and build again this example" << std::endl;
#elif !(defined(VISP_HAVE_LAPACK) || defined(VISP_HAVE_EIGEN3) || defined(VISP_HAVE_OPENCV))
int main()
std::cout << "Cannot run this example: install Lapack, Eigen3 or OpenCV" << std::endl;
int main()
std::cout << "You do not have threading capabilities" << std::endl;
std::cout << "Tip:" << std::endl;
std::cout << "- Install pthread, configure again ViSP using cmake and build again this example" << std::endl;
Generic class defining intrinsic camera parameters.
@ perspectiveProjWithoutDistortion
Perspective projection without distortion model.
Implementation of column vector and the associated operations.
Definition: vpColVector.h:163
Display for windows using GDI (available on any windows 32 platform).
Definition: vpDisplayGDI.h:128
The vpDisplayOpenCV allows to display image using the OpenCV library. Thus to enable this class OpenC...
Use the X11 console to display images on unix-like OS. Thus to enable this class X11 should be instal...
Definition: vpDisplayX.h:128
void init(vpImage< unsigned char > &I, int win_x=-1, int win_y=-1, const std::string &win_title="") vp_override
static bool getClick(const vpImage< unsigned char > &I, bool blocking=true)
static void display(const vpImage< unsigned char > &I)
static void flush(const vpImage< unsigned char > &I)
error that can be emitted by ViSP classes.
Definition: vpException.h:59
static void create(vpFeaturePoint &s, const vpCameraParameters &cam, const vpDot &d)
Class that defines a 2D point visual feature which is composed by two parameters that are the cartes...
void track(const vpHomogeneousMatrix &cMo)
Implementation of an homogeneous matrix and operations on such kind of matrices.
static double rad(double deg)
Definition: vpMath.h:127
static bool parse(int *argcPtr, const char **argv, vpArgvInfo *argTable, int flags)
Definition: vpParseArgv.cpp:69
Class that defines a 3D point in the object frame and allows forward projection of a 3D point in the ...
Definition: vpPoint.h:77
void setWorldCoordinates(double oX, double oY, double oZ)
Definition: vpPoint.cpp:110
void setVelocity(const vpRobot::vpControlFrameType frame, const vpColVector &vel) vp_override
Definition: vpRobot.h:82
Initialize the velocity controller.
Definition: vpRobot.h:65
virtual vpRobotStateType setRobotState(const vpRobot::vpRobotStateType newState)
Definition: vpRobot.cpp:198
void setInteractionMatrixType(const vpServoIteractionMatrixType &interactionMatrixType, const vpServoInversionType &interactionMatrixInversion=PSEUDO_INVERSE)
Definition: vpServo.cpp:378
Definition: vpServo.h:155
void addFeature(vpBasicFeature &s_cur, vpBasicFeature &s_star, unsigned int select=vpBasicFeature::FEATURE_ALL)
Definition: vpServo.cpp:329
void print(const vpServo::vpServoPrintType display_level=ALL, std::ostream &os=std::cout)
Definition: vpServo.cpp:169
void setLambda(double c)
Definition: vpServo.h:976
void setServo(const vpServoType &servo_type)
Definition: vpServo.cpp:132
vpColVector getError() const
Definition: vpServo.h:504
vpColVector computeControlLaw()
Definition: vpServo.cpp:703
Definition: vpServo.h:202
Simulator of Irisa's Viper S850 robot named Viper850.
Definition: vpViper850.h:122
void display(vpImage< unsigned char > &I, const std::string &title)
Display a gray-scale image.
VISP_EXPORT int wait(double t0, double t)
VISP_EXPORT double measureTimeMs()