Visual Servoing Platform  version 3.6.1 under development (2024-05-27)

Regression test for depth MBT.

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* it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
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* Campus Universitaire de Beaulieu
* 35042 Rennes Cedex
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* This file is provided AS IS with NO WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, INCLUDING THE
* Description:
* Regression test for depth MBT.
#include <cstdlib>
#include <iostream>
#include <visp3/core/vpConfig.h>
#if defined(VISP_HAVE_MODULE_MBT) && (defined(VISP_HAVE_LAPACK) || defined(VISP_HAVE_EIGEN3) || defined(VISP_HAVE_OPENCV))
#include <type_traits>
#include <visp3/core/vpIoTools.h>
#include <visp3/gui/vpDisplayD3D.h>
#include <visp3/gui/vpDisplayGDI.h>
#include <visp3/gui/vpDisplayGTK.h>
#include <visp3/gui/vpDisplayOpenCV.h>
#include <visp3/gui/vpDisplayX.h>
#include <visp3/io/vpImageIo.h>
#include <visp3/io/vpParseArgv.h>
#include <visp3/mbt/vpMbGenericTracker.h>
#define GETOPTARGS "i:dcle:mCh"
void usage(const char *name, const char *badparam)
fprintf(stdout, "\n\
Regression test for vpGenericTracker and depth.\n\
%s [-i <test image path>] [-c] [-d] [-h] [-l] \n\
[-e <last frame index>] [-m] [-C]\n",
fprintf(stdout, "\n\
-i <input image path> \n\
Set image input path.\n\
These images come from ViSP-images-x.y.z.tar.gz available \n\
on the ViSP website.\n\
Setting the VISP_INPUT_IMAGE_PATH environment\n\
variable produces the same behavior than using\n\
this option.\n\
-d \n\
Turn off the display.\n\
Disable the mouse click. Useful to automate the \n\
execution of this program without human intervention.\n\
Use the scanline for visibility tests.\n\
-e <last frame index>\n\
Specify the index of the last frame. Once reached, the tracking is stopped.\n\
-m \n\
Set a tracking mask.\n\
-C \n\
Use color images.\n\
-h \n\
Print the help.\n\n");
if (badparam)
fprintf(stdout, "\nERROR: Bad parameter [%s]\n", badparam);
bool getOptions(int argc, const char **argv, std::string &ipath, bool &click_allowed, bool &display, bool &useScanline,
int &lastFrame, bool &use_mask, bool &use_color_image)
const char *optarg_;
int c;
while ((c = vpParseArgv::parse(argc, argv, GETOPTARGS, &optarg_)) > 1) {
switch (c) {
case 'i':
ipath = optarg_;
case 'c':
click_allowed = false;
case 'd':
display = false;
case 'l':
useScanline = true;
case 'e':
lastFrame = atoi(optarg_);
case 'm':
use_mask = true;
case 'C':
use_color_image = true;
case 'h':
usage(argv[0], nullptr);
return false;
usage(argv[0], optarg_);
return false;
if ((c == 1) || (c == -1)) {
// standalone param or error
usage(argv[0], nullptr);
std::cerr << "ERROR: " << std::endl;
std::cerr << " Bad argument " << optarg_ << std::endl << std::endl;
return false;
return true;
template <typename Type>
bool read_data(const std::string &input_directory, int cpt, const vpCameraParameters &cam_depth, vpImage<Type> &I,
vpImage<uint16_t> &I_depth, std::vector<vpColVector> &pointcloud, vpHomogeneousMatrix &cMo)
static_assert(std::is_same<Type, unsigned char>::value || std::is_same<Type, vpRGBa>::value,
"Template function supports only unsigned char and vpRGBa images!");
std::string ext("png");
std::string ext("pgm");
char buffer[FILENAME_MAX];
snprintf(buffer, FILENAME_MAX, std::string(input_directory + "/Images/Image_%04d." + ext).c_str(), cpt);
std::string image_filename = buffer;
snprintf(buffer, FILENAME_MAX, std::string(input_directory + "/Depth/Depth_%04d.bin").c_str(), cpt);
std::string depth_filename = buffer;
snprintf(buffer, FILENAME_MAX, std::string(input_directory + "/CameraPose/Camera_%03d.txt").c_str(), cpt);
std::string pose_filename = buffer;
if (!vpIoTools::checkFilename(image_filename) || !vpIoTools::checkFilename(depth_filename) ||
return false;
vpImageIo::read(I, image_filename);
unsigned int depth_width = 0, depth_height = 0;
std::ifstream file_depth(depth_filename.c_str(), std::ios::in | std::ios::binary);
if (!file_depth.is_open())
return false;
vpIoTools::readBinaryValueLE(file_depth, depth_height);
vpIoTools::readBinaryValueLE(file_depth, depth_width);
I_depth.resize(depth_height, depth_width);
pointcloud.resize(depth_height * depth_width);
const float depth_scale = 0.000030518f;
for (unsigned int i = 0; i < I_depth.getHeight(); i++) {
for (unsigned int j = 0; j < I_depth.getWidth(); j++) {
vpIoTools::readBinaryValueLE(file_depth, I_depth[i][j]);
double x = 0.0, y = 0.0, Z = I_depth[i][j] * depth_scale;
vpPixelMeterConversion::convertPoint(cam_depth, j, i, x, y);
vpColVector pt3d(4, 1.0);
pt3d[0] = x * Z;
pt3d[1] = y * Z;
pt3d[2] = Z;
pointcloud[i * I_depth.getWidth() + j] = pt3d;
std::ifstream file_pose(pose_filename.c_str());
if (!file_pose.is_open()) {
return false;
for (unsigned int i = 0; i < 4; i++) {
for (unsigned int j = 0; j < 4; j++) {
file_pose >> cMo[i][j];
return true;
template <typename Type>
bool run(vpImage<Type> &I, const std::string &input_directory, bool opt_click_allowed, bool opt_display,
bool useScanline, int opt_lastFrame, bool use_mask)
static_assert(std::is_same<Type, unsigned char>::value || std::is_same<Type, vpRGBa>::value,
"Template function supports only unsigned char and vpRGBa images!");
// Initialise a display
#if defined(VISP_HAVE_X11)
vpDisplayX display1, display2;
#elif defined(VISP_HAVE_GDI)
vpDisplayGDI display1, display2;
#elif defined(HAVE_OPENCV_HIGHGUI)
vpDisplayOpenCV display1, display2;
#elif defined(VISP_HAVE_D3D9)
vpDisplayD3D display1, display2;
#elif defined(VISP_HAVE_GTK)
vpDisplayGTK display1, display2;
opt_display = false;
std::vector<int> tracker_type;
vpMbGenericTracker tracker(tracker_type);
#if defined(VISP_HAVE_PUGIXML)
tracker.loadConfigFile(input_directory + "/Config/chateau_depth.xml");
// Corresponding parameters manually set to have an example code
vpCameraParameters cam_depth;
cam_depth.initPersProjWithoutDistortion(700.0, 700.0, 320.0, 240.0);
// Depth
tracker.loadModel(input_directory + "/Models/chateau.cao");
T[0][0] = -1;
T[0][3] = -0.2;
T[1][1] = 0;
T[1][2] = 1;
T[1][3] = 0.12;
T[2][1] = 1;
T[2][2] = 0;
T[2][3] = -0.15;
tracker.loadModel(input_directory + "/Models/cube.cao", false, T);
vpCameraParameters cam_depth;
vpImage<uint16_t> I_depth_raw;
vpImage<vpRGBa> I_depth;
std::vector<vpColVector> pointcloud;
int cpt_frame = 1;
if (!read_data(input_directory, cpt_frame, cam_depth, I, I_depth_raw, pointcloud, cMo_truth)) {
std::cerr << "Cannot read first frame!" << std::endl;
const double roi_step = 7.0;
const double roi_step2 = 6.0;
if (use_mask) {
mask = false;
for (unsigned int i = (unsigned int)(I.getRows() / roi_step);
i < (unsigned int)(I.getRows() * roi_step2 / roi_step); i++) {
for (unsigned int j = (unsigned int)(I.getCols() / roi_step);
j < (unsigned int)(I.getCols() * roi_step2 / roi_step); j++) {
mask[i][j] = true;
vpImageConvert::createDepthHistogram(I_depth_raw, I_depth);
if (opt_display) {
display1.init(I, 0, 0, "Image");
display2.init(I_depth, (int)I.getWidth(), 0, "Depth");
vpHomogeneousMatrix depth_M_color;
depth_M_color[0][3] = -0.05;
tracker.initFromPose(I, depth_M_color * cMo_truth);
bool click = false, quit = false, correct_accuracy = true;
std::vector<double> vec_err_t, vec_err_tu;
std::vector<double> time_vec;
while (read_data(input_directory, cpt_frame, cam_depth, I, I_depth_raw, pointcloud, cMo_truth) && !quit &&
(opt_lastFrame > 0 ? (int)cpt_frame <= opt_lastFrame : true)) {
vpImageConvert::createDepthHistogram(I_depth_raw, I_depth);
if (opt_display) {
double t = vpTime::measureTimeMs();
std::map<std::string, const vpImage<Type> *> mapOfImages;
std::map<std::string, const std::vector<vpColVector> *> mapOfPointclouds;
mapOfPointclouds["Camera"] = &pointcloud;
std::map<std::string, unsigned int> mapOfWidths, mapOfHeights;
mapOfWidths["Camera"] = I_depth.getWidth();
mapOfHeights["Camera"] = I_depth.getHeight();
tracker.track(mapOfImages, mapOfPointclouds, mapOfWidths, mapOfHeights);
vpHomogeneousMatrix cMo = tracker.getPose();
if (opt_display) {
tracker.display(I_depth, cMo, cam_depth, vpColor::red, 3);
vpDisplay::displayFrame(I_depth, cMo, cam_depth, 0.05, vpColor::none, 3);
std::stringstream ss;
ss << "Frame: " << cpt_frame;
vpDisplay::displayText(I_depth, 20, 20, ss.str(), vpColor::red);
ss << "Nb features: " << tracker.getError().getRows();
vpDisplay::displayText(I_depth, 40, 20, ss.str(), vpColor::red);
vpPoseVector pose_est(cMo);
vpPoseVector pose_truth(depth_M_color * cMo_truth);
vpColVector t_est(3), t_truth(3);
vpColVector tu_est(3), tu_truth(3);
for (unsigned int i = 0; i < 3; i++) {
t_est[i] = pose_est[i];
t_truth[i] = pose_truth[i];
tu_est[i] = pose_est[i + 3];
tu_truth[i] = pose_truth[i + 3];
vpColVector t_err = t_truth - t_est, tu_err = tu_truth - tu_est;
double t_err2 = sqrt(t_err.sumSquare()), tu_err2 = vpMath::deg(sqrt(tu_err.sumSquare()));
const double t_thresh = useScanline ? 0.003 : 0.002;
const double tu_thresh = useScanline ? 0.5 : 0.4;
if (!use_mask && (t_err2 > t_thresh || tu_err2 > tu_thresh)) { // no accuracy test with mask
std::cerr << "Pose estimated exceeds the threshold (t_thresh = " << t_thresh << ", tu_thresh = " << tu_thresh
<< ")!" << std::endl;
std::cout << "t_err: " << t_err2 << " ; tu_err: " << tu_err2 << std::endl;
correct_accuracy = false;
if (opt_display) {
if (use_mask) {
vpRect roi(vpImagePoint(I.getRows() / roi_step, I.getCols() / roi_step),
vpImagePoint(I.getRows() * roi_step2 / roi_step, I.getCols() * roi_step2 / roi_step));
if (opt_display && opt_click_allowed) {
if (vpDisplay::getClick(I, button, click)) {
switch (button) {
quit = !click;
click = !click;
if (!time_vec.empty())
std::cout << "Computation time, Mean: " << vpMath::getMean(time_vec)
<< " ms ; Median: " << vpMath::getMedian(time_vec) << " ms ; Std: " << vpMath::getStdev(time_vec) << " ms"
<< std::endl;
if (!vec_err_t.empty())
std::cout << "Max translation error: " << *std::max_element(vec_err_t.begin(), vec_err_t.end()) << std::endl;
if (!vec_err_tu.empty())
std::cout << "Max thetau error: " << *std::max_element(vec_err_tu.begin(), vec_err_tu.end()) << std::endl;
return correct_accuracy ? EXIT_SUCCESS : EXIT_FAILURE;
} // namespace
int main(int argc, const char *argv[])
try {
std::string env_ipath;
std::string opt_ipath = "";
bool opt_click_allowed = true;
bool opt_display = true;
bool useScanline = false;
#if defined(__mips__) || defined(__mips) || defined(mips) || defined(__MIPS__)
// To avoid Debian test timeout
int opt_lastFrame = 5;
int opt_lastFrame = -1;
bool use_mask = false;
bool use_color_image = false;
// Get the visp-images-data package path or VISP_INPUT_IMAGE_PATH
// environment variable value
// Read the command line options
if (!getOptions(argc, argv, opt_ipath, opt_click_allowed, opt_display, useScanline, opt_lastFrame, use_mask,
use_color_image)) {
std::cout << "useScanline: " << useScanline << std::endl;
std::cout << "use_mask: " << use_mask << std::endl;
std::cout << "use_color_image: " << use_color_image << std::endl;
// Test if an input path is set
if (opt_ipath.empty() && env_ipath.empty()) {
usage(argv[0], nullptr);
std::cerr << std::endl << "ERROR:" << std::endl;
std::cerr << " Use -i <visp image path> option or set VISP_INPUT_IMAGE_PATH " << std::endl
<< " environment variable to specify the location of the " << std::endl
<< " image path where test images are located." << std::endl
<< std::endl;
std::string input_directory =
vpIoTools::createFilePath(!opt_ipath.empty() ? opt_ipath : env_ipath, "mbt-depth/Castle-simu");
if (!vpIoTools::checkDirectory(input_directory)) {
std::cerr << "ViSP-images does not contain the folder: " << input_directory << "!" << std::endl;
if (use_color_image) {
vpImage<vpRGBa> I_color;
return run(I_color, input_directory, opt_click_allowed, opt_display, useScanline, opt_lastFrame, use_mask);
else {
return run(I_gray, input_directory, opt_click_allowed, opt_display, useScanline, opt_lastFrame, use_mask);
catch (const vpException &e) {
std::cout << "Catch an exception: " << e << std::endl;
#elif !(defined(VISP_HAVE_LAPACK) || defined(VISP_HAVE_EIGEN3) || defined(VISP_HAVE_OPENCV))
int main()
std::cout << "Cannot run this example: install Lapack, Eigen3 or OpenCV" << std::endl;
int main()
std::cout << "Enable MBT module (VISP_HAVE_MODULE_MBT) to launch this test." << std::endl;
unsigned int getRows() const
Definition: vpArray2D.h:339
Generic class defining intrinsic camera parameters.
void initPersProjWithoutDistortion(double px, double py, double u0, double v0)
Implementation of column vector and the associated operations.
Definition: vpColVector.h:163
double sumSquare() const
static const vpColor red
Definition: vpColor.h:211
static const vpColor none
Definition: vpColor.h:223
static const vpColor yellow
Definition: vpColor.h:219
Display for windows using Direct3D 3rd party. Thus to enable this class Direct3D should be installed....
Definition: vpDisplayD3D.h:101
Display for windows using GDI (available on any windows 32 platform).
Definition: vpDisplayGDI.h:128
The vpDisplayGTK allows to display image using the GTK 3rd party library. Thus to enable this class G...
Definition: vpDisplayGTK.h:128
The vpDisplayOpenCV allows to display image using the OpenCV library. Thus to enable this class OpenC...
Use the X11 console to display images on unix-like OS. Thus to enable this class X11 should be instal...
Definition: vpDisplayX.h:128
void init(vpImage< unsigned char > &I, int win_x=-1, int win_y=-1, const std::string &win_title="") vp_override
static bool getClick(const vpImage< unsigned char > &I, bool blocking=true)
static void display(const vpImage< unsigned char > &I)
static void displayFrame(const vpImage< unsigned char > &I, const vpHomogeneousMatrix &cMo, const vpCameraParameters &cam, double size, const vpColor &color=vpColor::none, unsigned int thickness=1, const vpImagePoint &offset=vpImagePoint(0, 0), const std::string &frameName="", const vpColor &textColor=vpColor::black, const vpImagePoint &textOffset=vpImagePoint(15, 15))
static void flush(const vpImage< unsigned char > &I)
static void displayRectangle(const vpImage< unsigned char > &I, const vpImagePoint &topLeft, unsigned int width, unsigned int height, const vpColor &color, bool fill=false, unsigned int thickness=1)
static void displayText(const vpImage< unsigned char > &I, const vpImagePoint &ip, const std::string &s, const vpColor &color)
error that can be emitted by ViSP classes.
Definition: vpException.h:59
Implementation of an homogeneous matrix and operations on such kind of matrices.
static void createDepthHistogram(const vpImage< uint16_t > &src_depth, vpImage< vpRGBa > &dest_rgba)
static void read(vpImage< unsigned char > &I, const std::string &filename, int backend=IO_DEFAULT_BACKEND)
Definition: vpImageIo.cpp:143
Class that defines a 2D point in an image. This class is useful for image processing and stores only ...
Definition: vpImagePoint.h:82
Definition of the vpImage class member functions.
Definition: vpImage.h:69
unsigned int getWidth() const
Definition: vpImage.h:245
void resize(unsigned int h, unsigned int w)
resize the image : Image initialization
Definition: vpImage.h:798
unsigned int getCols() const
Definition: vpImage.h:175
unsigned int getHeight() const
Definition: vpImage.h:184
unsigned int getRows() const
Definition: vpImage.h:215
static std::string getViSPImagesDataPath()
Definition: vpIoTools.cpp:1834
static bool checkFilename(const std::string &filename)
Definition: vpIoTools.cpp:1215
static void readBinaryValueLE(std::ifstream &file, int16_t &short_value)
Definition: vpIoTools.cpp:2522
static bool checkDirectory(const std::string &dirname)
Definition: vpIoTools.cpp:834
static std::string createFilePath(const std::string &parent, const std::string &child)
Definition: vpIoTools.cpp:2197
static double rad(double deg)
Definition: vpMath.h:127
static double getMedian(const std::vector< double > &v)
Definition: vpMath.cpp:323
static double getStdev(const std::vector< double > &v, bool useBesselCorrection=false)
Definition: vpMath.cpp:354
static double getMean(const std::vector< double > &v)
Definition: vpMath.cpp:303
static double deg(double rad)
Definition: vpMath.h:117
Real-time 6D object pose tracking using its CAD model.
virtual void initFromPose(const vpImage< unsigned char > &I, const vpHomogeneousMatrix &cMo) vp_override
virtual void setMask(const vpImage< bool > &mask) vp_override
virtual void setKltMaskBorder(const unsigned int &e)
virtual void loadConfigFile(const std::string &configFile, bool verbose=true) vp_override
virtual void setAngleDisappear(const double &a) vp_override
virtual void getPose(vpHomogeneousMatrix &cMo) const vp_override
virtual void display(const vpImage< unsigned char > &I, const vpHomogeneousMatrix &cMo, const vpCameraParameters &cam, const vpColor &col, unsigned int thickness=1, bool displayFullModel=false) vp_override
virtual void getCameraParameters(vpCameraParameters &camera) const vp_override
virtual void setDepthNormalSamplingStep(unsigned int stepX, unsigned int stepY)
virtual void setDepthNormalPclPlaneEstimationMethod(int method)
virtual void setDepthNormalPclPlaneEstimationRansacMaxIter(int maxIter)
virtual void setDepthNormalPclPlaneEstimationRansacThreshold(double threshold)
virtual void setAngleAppear(const double &a) vp_override
virtual void setDepthDenseSamplingStep(unsigned int stepX, unsigned int stepY)
virtual void loadModel(const std::string &modelFile, bool verbose=false, const vpHomogeneousMatrix &T=vpHomogeneousMatrix()) vp_override
virtual void setFarClippingDistance(const double &dist) vp_override
virtual void setNearClippingDistance(const double &dist) vp_override
virtual void setScanLineVisibilityTest(const bool &v) vp_override
virtual void getClipping(unsigned int &clippingFlag1, unsigned int &clippingFlag2) const
virtual void setCameraParameters(const vpCameraParameters &camera) vp_override
virtual void setClipping(const unsigned int &flags) vp_override
virtual void setDisplayFeatures(bool displayF) vp_override
virtual vpColVector getError() const vp_override
virtual void track(const vpImage< unsigned char > &I) vp_override
virtual void setDepthNormalFeatureEstimationMethod(const vpMbtFaceDepthNormal::vpFeatureEstimationType &method)
static bool parse(int *argcPtr, const char **argv, vpArgvInfo *argTable, int flags)
Definition: vpParseArgv.cpp:69
static void convertPoint(const vpCameraParameters &cam, const double &u, const double &v, double &x, double &y)
Implementation of a pose vector and operations on poses.
Definition: vpPoseVector.h:190
Defines a rectangle in the plane.
Definition: vpRect.h:76
void display(vpImage< unsigned char > &I, const std::string &title)
Display a gray-scale image.
VISP_EXPORT double measureTimeMs()