Visual Servoing Platform  version 3.6.1 under development (2024-05-21)
#include <visp3/core/vpConfig.h>
#include <visp3/core/vpIoTools.h>
#include <visp3/gui/vpDisplayGDI.h>
#include <visp3/gui/vpDisplayOpenCV.h>
#include <visp3/gui/vpDisplayX.h>
#include <visp3/io/vpVideoReader.h>
#include <visp3/mbt/vpMbEdgeTracker.h>
#include <visp3/vision/vpKeyPoint.h>
void learnCube(const vpImage<unsigned char> &I, vpMbEdgeTracker &tracker, vpKeyPoint &keypoint_learning, int id)
std::vector<cv::KeyPoint> trainKeyPoints;
double elapsedTime;
keypoint_learning.detect(I, trainKeyPoints, elapsedTime);
std::vector<vpPolygon> polygons;
std::vector<std::vector<vpPoint> > roisPt;
std::pair<std::vector<vpPolygon>, std::vector<std::vector<vpPoint> > > pair = tracker.getPolygonFaces();
polygons = pair.first;
roisPt = pair.second;
std::vector<cv::Point3f> points3f;
vpKeyPoint::compute3DForPointsInPolygons(cMo, cam, trainKeyPoints, polygons, roisPt, points3f);
keypoint_learning.buildReference(I, trainKeyPoints, points3f, true, id);
for (std::vector<cv::KeyPoint>::const_iterator it = trainKeyPoints.begin(); it != trainKeyPoints.end(); ++it) {
vpDisplay::displayCross(I, (int)it->pt.y, (int)it->pt.x, 4, vpColor::red);
int main(int argc, char **argv)
try {
std::string videoname = "cube.mp4";
for (int i = 0; i < argc; i++) {
if (std::string(argv[i]) == "--name")
videoname = std::string(argv[i + 1]);
else if (std::string(argv[i]) == "--help") {
std::cout << "\nUsage: " << argv[0] << " [--name <video name>] [--help]\n" << std::endl;
std::string parentname = vpIoTools::getParent(videoname);
std::string objectname = vpIoTools::getNameWE(videoname);
if (!parentname.empty())
objectname = parentname + "/" + objectname;
std::cout << "Video name: " << videoname << std::endl;
std::cout << "Tracker requested config files: " << objectname << ".[init,"
<< "xml,"
<< "cao or wrl]" << std::endl;
std::cout << "Tracker optional config files: " << objectname << ".[ppm]" << std::endl;
vpMbEdgeTracker tracker;
bool usexml = false;
#if defined(VISP_HAVE_PUGIXML)
if (vpIoTools::checkFilename(objectname + ".xml")) {
tracker.loadConfigFile(objectname + ".xml");
usexml = true;
if (!usexml) {
vpMe me;
cam.initPersProjWithoutDistortion(547, 542, 339, 235);
if (vpIoTools::checkFilename(objectname + ".cao"))
tracker.loadModel(objectname + ".cao");
else if (vpIoTools::checkFilename(objectname + ".wrl"))
tracker.loadModel(objectname + ".wrl");
vpKeyPoint keypoint_learning("ORB", "ORB", "BruteForce-Hamming");
keypoint_learning.setDetectorParameter("ORB", "nLevels", 1);
cv::Ptr<cv::ORB> orb_learning = keypoint_learning.getDetector("ORB").dynamicCast<cv::ORB>();
if (orb_learning) {
#if defined(VISP_HAVE_X11)
#elif defined(VISP_HAVE_GDI)
#elif defined(HAVE_OPENCV_HIGHGUI)
std::cout << "No image viewer is available..." << std::endl;
* Start the part of the code dedicated to object learning from 3 images
std::string imageName[] = { "cube0001.png", "cube0150.png", "cube0200.png" };
vpHomogeneousMatrix initPoseTab[] = {
vpHomogeneousMatrix(0.02143385294, 0.1098083886, 0.5127439561, 2.087159614, 1.141775176, -0.4701291124),
vpHomogeneousMatrix(0.02651282185, -0.03713587374, 0.6873765919, 2.314744454, 0.3492296488, -0.1226054828),
vpHomogeneousMatrix(0.02965448956, -0.07283091786, 0.7253526051, 2.300529617, -0.4286674806, 0.1788761025) };
for (int i = 0; i < 3; i++) {
vpImageIo::read(I, imageName[i]);
if (i == 0) {
display.init(I, 10, 10);
std::stringstream title;
title << "Learning cube on image: " << imageName[i];
vpDisplay::setTitle(I, title.str().c_str());
tracker.setPose(I, initPoseTab[i]);
tracker.display(I, cMo, cam, vpColor::red);
learnCube(I, tracker, keypoint_learning, i);
vpDisplay::displayText(I, 10, 10, "Learning step: keypoints are detected on visible cube faces", vpColor::red);
if (i < 2) {
vpDisplay::displayText(I, 30, 10, "Click to continue the learning...", vpColor::red);
else {
vpDisplay::displayText(I, 30, 10, "Click to continue with the detection...", vpColor::red);
keypoint_learning.saveLearningData("cube_learning_data.bin", true);
* Start the part of the code dedicated to detection and localization
vpKeyPoint keypoint_detection("ORB", "ORB", "BruteForce-Hamming");
keypoint_detection.setDetectorParameter("ORB", "nLevels", 1);
cv::Ptr<cv::ORB> orb_detector = keypoint_detection.getDetector("ORB").dynamicCast<cv::ORB>();
orb_detector = keypoint_detection.getDetector("ORB").dynamicCast<cv::ORB>();
if (orb_detector) {
keypoint_detection.loadLearningData("cube_learning_data.bin", true);
keypoint_detection.createImageMatching(I, IMatching);
#if defined(VISP_HAVE_X11)
vpDisplayX display2;
#elif defined(VISP_HAVE_GTK)
vpDisplayGTK display2;
#elif defined(VISP_HAVE_GDI)
vpDisplayGDI display2;
#elif defined(HAVE_OPENCV_HIGHGUI)
vpDisplayOpenCV display2;
display2.init(IMatching, 50, 50, "Display matching between learned and current images");
vpDisplay::setTitle(I, "Cube detection and localization");
double error;
bool click_done = false;
while (!g.end()) {
keypoint_detection.insertImageMatching(I, IMatching);
vpDisplay::displayText(I, 10, 10, "Detection and localization in process...", vpColor::red);
double elapsedTime;
if (keypoint_detection.matchPoint(I, cam, cMo, error, elapsedTime)) {
tracker.setPose(I, cMo);
tracker.display(I, cMo, cam, vpColor::red, 2);
vpDisplay::displayFrame(I, cMo, cam, 0.05, vpColor::none, 3);
keypoint_detection.displayMatching(I, IMatching);
std::vector<vpImagePoint> ransacInliers = keypoint_detection.getRansacInliers();
std::vector<vpImagePoint> ransacOutliers = keypoint_detection.getRansacOutliers();
for (std::vector<vpImagePoint>::const_iterator it = ransacInliers.begin(); it != ransacInliers.end(); ++it) {
vpImagePoint imPt(*it);
imPt.set_u(imPt.get_u() + I.getWidth());
imPt.set_v(imPt.get_v() + I.getHeight());
for (std::vector<vpImagePoint>::const_iterator it = ransacOutliers.begin(); it != ransacOutliers.end(); ++it) {
vpImagePoint imPt(*it);
imPt.set_u(imPt.get_u() + I.getWidth());
imPt.set_v(imPt.get_v() + I.getHeight());
vpDisplay::displayCircle(IMatching, imPt, 4, vpColor::red);
keypoint_detection.displayMatching(I, IMatching);
cam2.initPersProjWithoutDistortion(cam.get_px(), cam.get_py(), cam.get_u0() + I.getWidth(),
cam.get_v0() + I.getHeight());
tracker.setPose(IMatching, cMo);
tracker.display(IMatching, cMo, cam2, vpColor::red, 2);
vpDisplay::displayFrame(IMatching, cMo, cam2, 0.05, vpColor::none, 3);
vpDisplay::displayText(IMatching, 30, 10, "A click to exit.", vpColor::red);
if (vpDisplay::getClick(I, false)) {
click_done = true;
if (vpDisplay::getClick(IMatching, false)) {
click_done = true;
if (!click_done)
catch (const vpException &e) {
std::cout << "Catch an exception: " << e << std::endl;
std::cout << "Install OpenCV and rebuild ViSP to use this example." << std::endl;
Generic class defining intrinsic camera parameters.
void initPersProjWithoutDistortion(double px, double py, double u0, double v0)
static const vpColor red
Definition: vpColor.h:211
static const vpColor none
Definition: vpColor.h:223
static const vpColor green
Definition: vpColor.h:214
Display for windows using GDI (available on any windows 32 platform).
Definition: vpDisplayGDI.h:128
The vpDisplayGTK allows to display image using the GTK 3rd party library. Thus to enable this class G...
Definition: vpDisplayGTK.h:128
The vpDisplayOpenCV allows to display image using the OpenCV library. Thus to enable this class OpenC...
Use the X11 console to display images on unix-like OS. Thus to enable this class X11 should be instal...
Definition: vpDisplayX.h:128
void init(vpImage< unsigned char > &I, int win_x=-1, int win_y=-1, const std::string &win_title="") vp_override
static bool getClick(const vpImage< unsigned char > &I, bool blocking=true)
static void displayCircle(const vpImage< unsigned char > &I, const vpImageCircle &circle, const vpColor &color, bool fill=false, unsigned int thickness=1)
static void display(const vpImage< unsigned char > &I)
static void displayFrame(const vpImage< unsigned char > &I, const vpHomogeneousMatrix &cMo, const vpCameraParameters &cam, double size, const vpColor &color=vpColor::none, unsigned int thickness=1, const vpImagePoint &offset=vpImagePoint(0, 0), const std::string &frameName="", const vpColor &textColor=vpColor::black, const vpImagePoint &textOffset=vpImagePoint(15, 15))
static void displayCross(const vpImage< unsigned char > &I, const vpImagePoint &ip, unsigned int size, const vpColor &color, unsigned int thickness=1)
static void setTitle(const vpImage< unsigned char > &I, const std::string &windowtitle)
static void flush(const vpImage< unsigned char > &I)
static void displayText(const vpImage< unsigned char > &I, const vpImagePoint &ip, const std::string &s, const vpColor &color)
error that can be emitted by ViSP classes.
Definition: vpException.h:59
Implementation of an homogeneous matrix and operations on such kind of matrices.
static void read(vpImage< unsigned char > &I, const std::string &filename, int backend=IO_DEFAULT_BACKEND)
Definition: vpImageIo.cpp:143
Class that defines a 2D point in an image. This class is useful for image processing and stores only ...
Definition: vpImagePoint.h:82
unsigned int getWidth() const
Definition: vpImage.h:245
unsigned int getHeight() const
Definition: vpImage.h:184
static bool checkFilename(const std::string &filename)
Definition: vpIoTools.cpp:1215
static std::string getNameWE(const std::string &pathname)
Definition: vpIoTools.cpp:2005
static std::string getParent(const std::string &pathname)
Definition: vpIoTools.cpp:2088
Class that allows keypoints detection (and descriptors extraction) and matching thanks to OpenCV libr...
Definition: vpKeyPoint.h:212
void detect(const vpImage< unsigned char > &I, std::vector< cv::KeyPoint > &keyPoints, const vpRect &rectangle=vpRect())
Definition: vpKeyPoint.cpp:970
static void compute3DForPointsInPolygons(const vpHomogeneousMatrix &cMo, const vpCameraParameters &cam, std::vector< cv::KeyPoint > &candidates, const std::vector< vpPolygon > &polygons, const std::vector< std::vector< vpPoint > > &roisPt, std::vector< cv::Point3f > &points, cv::Mat *descriptors=nullptr)
Definition: vpKeyPoint.cpp:460
unsigned int buildReference(const vpImage< unsigned char > &I)
Definition: vpKeyPoint.cpp:189
static double rad(double deg)
Definition: vpMath.h:127
Make the complete tracking of an object by using its CAD model.
virtual void setNearClippingDistance(const double &dist) vp_override
virtual void setOgreVisibilityTest(const bool &v) vp_override
virtual void setFarClippingDistance(const double &dist) vp_override
virtual void loadConfigFile(const std::string &configFile, bool verbose=true) vp_override
virtual void track(const vpImage< unsigned char > &I) vp_override
virtual void setClipping(const unsigned int &flags) vp_override
virtual void setCameraParameters(const vpCameraParameters &cam) vp_override
virtual void display(const vpImage< unsigned char > &I, const vpHomogeneousMatrix &cMo, const vpCameraParameters &cam, const vpColor &col, unsigned int thickness=1, bool displayFullModel=false) vp_override
void setMovingEdge(const vpMe &me)
virtual void setPose(const vpImage< unsigned char > &I, const vpHomogeneousMatrix &cdMo) vp_override
virtual void getCameraParameters(vpCameraParameters &cam) const
Definition: vpMbTracker.h:248
virtual void setDisplayFeatures(bool displayF)
Definition: vpMbTracker.h:518
virtual void getPose(vpHomogeneousMatrix &cMo) const
Definition: vpMbTracker.h:414
virtual void setAngleDisappear(const double &a)
Definition: vpMbTracker.h:481
virtual void loadModel(const std::string &modelFile, bool verbose=false, const vpHomogeneousMatrix &T=vpHomogeneousMatrix())
virtual void setAngleAppear(const double &a)
Definition: vpMbTracker.h:470
virtual std::pair< std::vector< vpPolygon >, std::vector< std::vector< vpPoint > > > getPolygonFaces(bool orderPolygons=true, bool useVisibility=true, bool clipPolygon=false)
virtual unsigned int getClipping() const
Definition: vpMbTracker.h:256
Definition: vpMe.h:124
void setMu1(const double &mu_1)
Definition: vpMe.h:399
void setRange(const unsigned int &range)
Definition: vpMe.h:429
void setLikelihoodThresholdType(const vpLikelihoodThresholdType likelihood_threshold_type)
Definition: vpMe.h:519
void setNbTotalSample(const int &ntotal_sample)
Definition: vpMe.h:413
void setMaskNumber(const unsigned int &mask_number)
Definition: vpMe.cpp:488
void setThreshold(const double &threshold)
Definition: vpMe.h:480
void setSampleStep(const double &sample_step)
Definition: vpMe.h:436
void setMaskSize(const unsigned int &mask_size)
Definition: vpMe.cpp:496
void setMu2(const double &mu_2)
Definition: vpMe.h:406
Definition: vpMe.h:135
Class that enables to manipulate easily a video file or a sequence of images. As it inherits from the...
void acquire(vpImage< vpRGBa > &I)
void open(vpImage< vpRGBa > &I)
void setFileName(const std::string &filename)
void display(vpImage< unsigned char > &I, const std::string &title)
Display a gray-scale image.