Visual Servoing Platform  version 3.6.1 under development (2024-05-28)

Test keypoint matching and pose estimation with mostly OpenCV functions calls to detect potential memory leaks in testKeyPoint-2.cpp.

* ViSP, open source Visual Servoing Platform software.
* Copyright (C) 2005 - 2023 by Inria. All rights reserved.
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* Description:
* Test keypoint matching and pose estimation with mostly OpenCV functions
* calls to detect potential memory leaks in testKeyPoint-2.cpp.
#include <iostream>
#include <visp3/core/vpConfig.h>
#include <visp3/core/vpHomogeneousMatrix.h>
#include <visp3/core/vpImage.h>
#include <visp3/core/vpIoTools.h>
#include <visp3/gui/vpDisplayGDI.h>
#include <visp3/gui/vpDisplayGTK.h>
#include <visp3/gui/vpDisplayOpenCV.h>
#include <visp3/gui/vpDisplayX.h>
#include <visp3/io/vpImageIo.h>
#include <visp3/io/vpParseArgv.h>
#include <visp3/io/vpVideoReader.h>
#include <visp3/mbt/vpMbEdgeTracker.h>
#include <visp3/vision/vpKeyPoint.h>
// List of allowed command line options
#define GETOPTARGS "cdh"
void usage(const char *name, const char *badparam);
bool getOptions(int argc, const char **argv, bool &click_allowed, bool &display);
void usage(const char *name, const char *badparam)
fprintf(stdout, "\n\
Test keypoints matching.\n\
%s [-c] [-d] [-h]\n",
fprintf(stdout, "\n\
Disable the mouse click. Useful to automate the \n\
execution of this program without human intervention.\n\
-d \n\
Turn off the display.\n\
Print the help.\n");
if (badparam)
fprintf(stdout, "\nERROR: Bad parameter [%s]\n", badparam);
bool getOptions(int argc, const char **argv, bool &click_allowed, bool &display)
const char *optarg_;
int c;
while ((c = vpParseArgv::parse(argc, argv, GETOPTARGS, &optarg_)) > 1) {
switch (c) {
case 'c':
click_allowed = false;
case 'd':
display = false;
case 'h':
usage(argv[0], nullptr);
return false;
usage(argv[0], optarg_);
return false;
if ((c == 1) || (c == -1)) {
// standalone param or error
usage(argv[0], nullptr);
std::cerr << "ERROR: " << std::endl;
std::cerr << " Bad argument " << optarg_ << std::endl << std::endl;
return false;
return true;
template <typename Type>
void run_test(const std::string &env_ipath, bool opt_click_allowed, bool opt_display, vpImage<Type> &I,
vpImage<Type> &Imatch, vpImage<Type> &Iref)
std::string ext("png");
std::string ext("pgm");
// Set the path location of the image sequence
std::string dirname = vpIoTools::createFilePath(env_ipath, "mbt/cube");
// Build the name of the image files
std::string filenameRef = vpIoTools::createFilePath(dirname, "image0000." + ext);
vpImageIo::read(I, filenameRef);
Iref = I;
std::string filenameCur = vpIoTools::createFilePath(dirname, "image%04d." + ext);
#if defined(VISP_HAVE_X11)
vpDisplayX display, display2;
#elif defined(VISP_HAVE_GTK)
vpDisplayGTK display, display2;
#elif defined(VISP_HAVE_GDI)
vpDisplayGDI display, display2;
#elif defined(HAVE_OPENCV_HIGHGUI)
if (opt_display) {
display.init(I, 0, 0, "ORB keypoints matching");
Imatch.resize(I.getHeight(), 2 * I.getWidth());
Imatch.insert(I, vpImagePoint(0, 0));
display2.init(Imatch, 0, (int)I.getHeight() / vpDisplay::getDownScalingFactor(I) + 70, "ORB keypoints matching");
vpMbEdgeTracker tracker;
// Load config for tracker
std::string tracker_config_file = vpIoTools::createFilePath(env_ipath, "mbt/cube.xml");
#if defined(VISP_HAVE_PUGYXML)
// Corresponding parameters manually set to have an example code
vpMe me;
cam.initPersProjWithoutDistortion(547.7367575, 542.0744058, 338.7036994, 234.5083345);
// Load CAO model
std::string cao_model_file = vpIoTools::createFilePath(env_ipath, "mbt/cube.cao");
// Initialize the pose
std::string init_file = vpIoTools::createFilePath(env_ipath, "mbt/cube.init");
if (opt_display && opt_click_allowed) {
tracker.initClick(I, init_file);
else {
vpHomogeneousMatrix cMoi(0.02044769891, 0.1101505452, 0.5078963719, 2.063603907, 1.110231561, -0.4392789872);
tracker.initFromPose(I, cMoi);
// Get the init pose
// Init keypoints
cv::Ptr<cv::FeatureDetector> detector;
cv::Ptr<cv::DescriptorExtractor> extractor;
cv::Ptr<cv::DescriptorMatcher> matcher;
#if (VISP_HAVE_OPENCV_VERSION >= 0x030000)
detector = cv::ORB::create(500, 1.2f, 1);
extractor = cv::ORB::create(500, 1.2f, 1);
#elif (VISP_HAVE_OPENCV_VERSION >= 0x020301)
detector = cv::FeatureDetector::create("ORB");
extractor = cv::DescriptorExtractor::create("ORB");
matcher = cv::DescriptorMatcher::create("BruteForce-Hamming");
detector->set("nLevels", 1);
// Detect keypoints on the current image
std::vector<cv::KeyPoint> trainKeyPoints;
cv::Mat matImg;
detector->detect(matImg, trainKeyPoints);
// Keep only keypoints on the cube
std::vector<vpPolygon> polygons;
std::vector<std::vector<vpPoint> > roisPt;
std::pair<std::vector<vpPolygon>, std::vector<std::vector<vpPoint> > > pair = tracker.getPolygonFaces(false);
polygons = pair.first;
roisPt = pair.second;
// Compute the 3D coordinates
std::vector<cv::Point3f> points3f;
vpKeyPoint::compute3DForPointsInPolygons(cMo, cam, trainKeyPoints, polygons, roisPt, points3f);
// Extract descriptors
cv::Mat trainDescriptors;
extractor->compute(matImg, trainKeyPoints, trainDescriptors);
if (trainKeyPoints.size() != (size_t)trainDescriptors.rows || trainKeyPoints.size() != points3f.size()) {
throw(vpException(vpException::fatalError, "Problem with training data size !"));
// Init reader for getting the input image sequence
bool opt_click = false;
while ((opt_display && !g.end()) || (!opt_display && g.getFrameIndex() < 30)) {
std::vector<cv::KeyPoint> queryKeyPoints;
detector->detect(matImg, queryKeyPoints);
cv::Mat queryDescriptors;
extractor->compute(matImg, queryKeyPoints, queryDescriptors);
std::vector<std::vector<cv::DMatch> > knn_matches;
std::vector<cv::DMatch> matches;
matcher->knnMatch(queryDescriptors, trainDescriptors, knn_matches, 2);
for (std::vector<std::vector<cv::DMatch> >::const_iterator it = knn_matches.begin(); it != knn_matches.end();
++it) {
if (it->size() > 1) {
double ratio = (*it)[0].distance / (*it)[1].distance;
if (ratio < 0.85) {
vpPose estimated_pose;
for (std::vector<cv::DMatch>::const_iterator it = matches.begin(); it != matches.end(); ++it) {
vpPoint pt(points3f[(size_t)(it->trainIdx)].x, points3f[(size_t)(it->trainIdx)].y,
double x = 0.0, y = 0.0;
vpPixelMeterConversion::convertPoint(cam, queryKeyPoints[(size_t)(it->queryIdx)].pt.x,
queryKeyPoints[(size_t)(it->queryIdx)].pt.y, x, y);
bool is_pose_estimated = false;
if (estimated_pose.npt >= 4) {
try {
unsigned int nb_inliers = (unsigned int)(0.6 * estimated_pose.npt);
estimated_pose.computePose(vpPose::RANSAC, cMo);
is_pose_estimated = true;
catch (...) {
is_pose_estimated = false;
if (opt_display) {
Imatch.insert(I, vpImagePoint(0, Iref.getWidth()));
for (std::vector<cv::DMatch>::const_iterator it = matches.begin(); it != matches.end(); ++it) {
vpImagePoint leftPt(trainKeyPoints[(size_t)it->trainIdx].pt.y, trainKeyPoints[(size_t)it->trainIdx].pt.x);
vpImagePoint rightPt(queryKeyPoints[(size_t)it->queryIdx].pt.y,
queryKeyPoints[(size_t)it->queryIdx].pt.x + Iref.getWidth());
vpDisplay::displayLine(Imatch, leftPt, rightPt, vpColor::green);
if (is_pose_estimated) {
tracker.setPose(I, cMo);
tracker.display(I, cMo, cam, vpColor::red);
// Click requested to process next image
if (opt_click_allowed && opt_display) {
if (opt_click) {
vpDisplay::getClick(I, button, true);
if (button == vpMouseButton::button3) {
opt_click = false;
else {
// Use right click to enable/disable step by step tracking
if (vpDisplay::getClick(I, button, false)) {
if (button == vpMouseButton::button3) {
opt_click = true;
else if (button == vpMouseButton::button1) {
int main(int argc, const char **argv)
try {
std::string env_ipath;
bool opt_click_allowed = true;
bool opt_display = true;
// Read the command line options
if (getOptions(argc, argv, opt_click_allowed, opt_display) == false) {
// Get the visp-images-data package path or VISP_INPUT_IMAGE_PATH
// environment variable value
if (env_ipath.empty()) {
std::cerr << "Please set the VISP_INPUT_IMAGE_PATH environment "
"variable value."
<< std::endl;
vpImage<unsigned char> I, Imatch, Iref;
std::cout << "-- Test on gray level images" << std::endl;
run_test(env_ipath, opt_click_allowed, opt_display, I, Imatch, Iref);
vpImage<vpRGBa> I, Imatch, Iref;
std::cout << "-- Test on color images" << std::endl;
run_test(env_ipath, opt_click_allowed, opt_display, I, Imatch, Iref);
catch (const vpException &e) {
std::cerr << e.what() << std::endl;
std::cout << "testKeyPoint-4 is ok !" << std::endl;
int main()
std::cerr << "You need OpenCV library." << std::endl;
Generic class defining intrinsic camera parameters.
void initPersProjWithoutDistortion(double px, double py, double u0, double v0)
static const vpColor red
Definition: vpColor.h:211
static const vpColor none
Definition: vpColor.h:223
static const vpColor green
Definition: vpColor.h:214
Display for windows using GDI (available on any windows 32 platform).
Definition: vpDisplayGDI.h:128
The vpDisplayGTK allows to display image using the GTK 3rd party library. Thus to enable this class G...
Definition: vpDisplayGTK.h:128
The vpDisplayOpenCV allows to display image using the OpenCV library. Thus to enable this class OpenC...
Use the X11 console to display images on unix-like OS. Thus to enable this class X11 should be instal...
Definition: vpDisplayX.h:128
void init(vpImage< unsigned char > &I, int win_x=-1, int win_y=-1, const std::string &win_title="") vp_override
static bool getClick(const vpImage< unsigned char > &I, bool blocking=true)
virtual void setDownScalingFactor(unsigned int scale)
Definition: vpDisplay.cpp:227
static void display(const vpImage< unsigned char > &I)
static void displayLine(const vpImage< unsigned char > &I, const vpImagePoint &ip1, const vpImagePoint &ip2, const vpColor &color, unsigned int thickness=1, bool segment=true)
static void displayFrame(const vpImage< unsigned char > &I, const vpHomogeneousMatrix &cMo, const vpCameraParameters &cam, double size, const vpColor &color=vpColor::none, unsigned int thickness=1, const vpImagePoint &offset=vpImagePoint(0, 0), const std::string &frameName="", const vpColor &textColor=vpColor::black, const vpImagePoint &textOffset=vpImagePoint(15, 15))
static void flush(const vpImage< unsigned char > &I)
Definition: vpDisplay.h:179
unsigned int getDownScalingFactor()
Definition: vpDisplay.h:216
error that can be emitted by ViSP classes.
Definition: vpException.h:59
@ fatalError
Fatal error.
Definition: vpException.h:71
const char * what() const
Definition: vpException.cpp:70
Implementation of an homogeneous matrix and operations on such kind of matrices.
static void convert(const vpImage< unsigned char > &src, vpImage< vpRGBa > &dest)
static void read(vpImage< unsigned char > &I, const std::string &filename, int backend=IO_DEFAULT_BACKEND)
Definition: vpImageIo.cpp:143
Class that defines a 2D point in an image. This class is useful for image processing and stores only ...
Definition: vpImagePoint.h:82
Definition of the vpImage class member functions.
Definition: vpImage.h:69
unsigned int getWidth() const
Definition: vpImage.h:245
void resize(unsigned int h, unsigned int w)
resize the image : Image initialization
Definition: vpImage.h:798
void insert(const vpImage< Type > &src, const vpImagePoint &topLeft)
Definition: vpImage.h:1609
unsigned int getHeight() const
Definition: vpImage.h:184
static std::string getViSPImagesDataPath()
Definition: vpIoTools.cpp:1834
static std::string createFilePath(const std::string &parent, const std::string &child)
Definition: vpIoTools.cpp:2197
static void compute3DForPointsInPolygons(const vpHomogeneousMatrix &cMo, const vpCameraParameters &cam, std::vector< cv::KeyPoint > &candidates, const std::vector< vpPolygon > &polygons, const std::vector< std::vector< vpPoint > > &roisPt, std::vector< cv::Point3f > &points, cv::Mat *descriptors=nullptr)
Definition: vpKeyPoint.cpp:460
static double rad(double deg)
Definition: vpMath.h:127
Make the complete tracking of an object by using its CAD model.
virtual void setNearClippingDistance(const double &dist) vp_override
virtual void setFarClippingDistance(const double &dist) vp_override
virtual void loadConfigFile(const std::string &configFile, bool verbose=true) vp_override
virtual void setClipping(const unsigned int &flags) vp_override
virtual void setCameraParameters(const vpCameraParameters &cam) vp_override
virtual void display(const vpImage< unsigned char > &I, const vpHomogeneousMatrix &cMo, const vpCameraParameters &cam, const vpColor &col, unsigned int thickness=1, bool displayFullModel=false) vp_override
void setMovingEdge(const vpMe &me)
virtual void setPose(const vpImage< unsigned char > &I, const vpHomogeneousMatrix &cdMo) vp_override
virtual void getCameraParameters(vpCameraParameters &cam) const
Definition: vpMbTracker.h:248
virtual void getPose(vpHomogeneousMatrix &cMo) const
Definition: vpMbTracker.h:414
virtual void setAngleDisappear(const double &a)
Definition: vpMbTracker.h:481
virtual void initClick(const vpImage< unsigned char > &I, const std::string &initFile, bool displayHelp=false, const vpHomogeneousMatrix &T=vpHomogeneousMatrix())
virtual void initFromPose(const vpImage< unsigned char > &I, const std::string &initFile)
virtual void loadModel(const std::string &modelFile, bool verbose=false, const vpHomogeneousMatrix &T=vpHomogeneousMatrix())
virtual void setAngleAppear(const double &a)
Definition: vpMbTracker.h:470
virtual std::pair< std::vector< vpPolygon >, std::vector< std::vector< vpPoint > > > getPolygonFaces(bool orderPolygons=true, bool useVisibility=true, bool clipPolygon=false)
virtual unsigned int getClipping() const
Definition: vpMbTracker.h:256
Definition: vpMe.h:124
void setMu1(const double &mu_1)
Definition: vpMe.h:375
void setRange(const unsigned int &range)
Definition: vpMe.h:405
void setLikelihoodThresholdType(const vpLikelihoodThresholdType likelihood_threshold_type)
Definition: vpMe.h:495
void setNbTotalSample(const int &ntotal_sample)
Definition: vpMe.h:389
void setMaskNumber(const unsigned int &mask_number)
Definition: vpMe.cpp:488
void setThreshold(const double &threshold)
Definition: vpMe.h:456
void setSampleStep(const double &sample_step)
Definition: vpMe.h:412
void setMaskSize(const unsigned int &mask_size)
Definition: vpMe.cpp:496
void setMu2(const double &mu_2)
Definition: vpMe.h:382
Definition: vpMe.h:135
static bool parse(int *argcPtr, const char **argv, vpArgvInfo *argTable, int flags)
Definition: vpParseArgv.cpp:69
static void convertPoint(const vpCameraParameters &cam, const double &u, const double &v, double &x, double &y)
Class that defines a 3D point in the object frame and allows forward projection of a 3D point in the ...
Definition: vpPoint.h:77
Class used for pose computation from N points (pose from point only). Some of the algorithms implemen...
Definition: vpPose.h:78
void setRansacMaxTrials(const int &rM)
Definition: vpPose.h:404
void addPoint(const vpPoint &P)
Definition: vpPose.cpp:93
void setRansacNbInliersToReachConsensus(const unsigned int &nbC)
Definition: vpPose.h:385
Definition: vpPose.h:88
unsigned int npt
Number of point used in pose computation.
Definition: vpPose.h:114
bool computePose(vpPoseMethodType method, vpHomogeneousMatrix &cMo, bool(*func)(const vpHomogeneousMatrix &)=nullptr)
Definition: vpPose.cpp:341
void setRansacThreshold(const double &t)
Definition: vpPose.h:390
Class that enables to manipulate easily a video file or a sequence of images. As it inherits from the...
void acquire(vpImage< vpRGBa > &I)
void open(vpImage< vpRGBa > &I)
void setFileName(const std::string &filename)
long getFrameIndex() const
void display(vpImage< unsigned char > &I, const std::string &title)
Display a gray-scale image.